The environmental protection is the act of keeping the natural environment of an individual, government, or non-governmental organization, for the benefit of the humans and the natural environment. But because of the technology and the over population, the biophysical environment is becoming degraded that sometimes suffers permanently. The government started to create some restrictions to several activities that can lead to the environmental degradation. In 1960, the activity for the environmental movements created an awareness on several environmental issues. However, there has been no agreement regarding the impact of the human activity to the environment, and the measure of protection are being criticized occasionally.
There are academic institutions that offer courses that will help the protection of the natural environment like environmental management, environmental studies, and environmental engineering. These courses can help to teach the methods and the history of the environmental protection. The protection of the environment is highly needed due to the human activities that are basically harmful like the air pollution that comes from the factories, waste production, and the loss of the biodiversity that results to the occurrence of the invasive species and other species extinction. There are three factors that influence the environmental protection, these are the ethics, environmental legislation, and education. These three factors has a major participation in influencing the environmental decision in the national level and personal levels of the environmental behaviors and values.
For the industrial countries, the voluntary agreements commonly gives a reason for several companies to be identify movement that is far from the minimum regulatory standards that supports the improvement of the environmental practice. For the developing countries, like the Latin America, these kinds of agreements are commonly applied for the remedy of the non-compliance and the mandatory regulation. There are also challenges that rise on these agreements for the establishment of the targets, baseline data, and reporting. Because of the difficulties that comes from the evaluation of its effectiveness, the users are commonly criticized and the environment is adversely affected.
The purpose of these approach is to consider the interrelationships complex of the overall ecosystem for the right decision making instead of just responding to the common challenges and issues. Basically, the process of decision making for these approach is collaborative that includes the wide array of the stakeholders over the relevant government departments and the representatives of every industry. This type of approach supports for the development of strategies for conflict resolution, information exchange, and regional conservation.
The natural resources are vulnerable as they are directly influence by the human impacts from several countries. As its result, there are many countries that attempts to create agreements that will be signed by various governments in order to avoid the damage and impacts of the human activity towards the natural resources. It includes the impact factors like the air pollution, oceans, and climate change. The international environments agreements are legally binding documents that offers a legal implication if they are not abided.
The issues concerning about the environmental protection usually focuses on the government role, law enforcement, and legislation. In the deeper senses, the environmental protection can be monitored responsibly by all the people and by the government. Majority of the constitution recognized the basic right for the environmental protection that can be also acknowledge in the international treaties including the right to live in an environment that is healthy. There are also countries that have the agencies and organizations that is devoted for the protection of the environment like the United Nations Environmental Programme.
Tanzania is known for having a great biodiversity that is almost 40 percent of its land were created into a network that for protection of areas that includes the national parks. The primary concerns on the natural environment includes the loss of habitats and damage of the ecosystem that can possibly lead to the expansion of the agriculture subsistence, population growth, and timber extraction for fuel usage.
The Tanzania environmental protection started in during the occupation of the Germans to the East Africa in 1884-1919. The laws for the colonial conservation for the protection of forest and games were legislated, and the restrictions were set on the traditional indigenous activities like the cattle grazing, hunting, and firewood collection. In 1948, Serengeti was established officially as the first national park in East Africa for the wild cats. In 1983, there were more effort had been made to manage the national level of the environmental issues in the formation of the National Environmental Management Council (NEMC) together with the growth of environment act.
The biosphere division is the primary governmental body that monitors the protection. It leads to the construction of the policy, coordination, and monitoring of the environmental issues, policy-based environmental research, and environmental planning. The NEMC is the institution initiated in the National Environment Management Act and was presented in 1983. NEMC has the basic purposes of giving technical advice, create an enforcement procedures and guidelines, and assess all the activities that involves the environment. It also involves the assisting and promotion of the environmental communication and information and to seek for the advance of knowledge that is based on science.
Tanzania is also a signatory for the important numbers of the international conventions such as the Rio Declaration on Development and Environment 1992 and the Convention on Biological Diversity 1996. The first legal comprehensive and institutional framework in guiding the environmental management decision is the Environmental Management Act of 2004. The policy tools are portion of the acts involves the usage of environmental strategies assessment, assessment on the environmental impact, and pollution taxation for the specific products and industries. The success of shifting of the act can be clear for over the time as the issues about its implementation becomes an apparent based from the fact that, there has been insufficiency in the capacity of enforcing the environmental laws and lack of effective tools to set the objective of the environmental protection into practice.